Solid State Electronic Devices – Ben Streetman, Sanjay Banerjee – 6th Edition

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Para universitarios de o para ingenieros y científicos en ejercicio, interesados ??en actualizar su comprensión de la electrónica moderna.

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  • 1 CRYSTAL PROPERTIES AND GROWTH OF SEMICONDUCTORS
    1.1 Semiconductor Materials
    1.2 Crystal Lattices
    1.2.1 Periodic Structures
    1.2.2 Cubic Lattices
    1.2.3 Planes and Directions
    1.2.4 The Diamond Lattice
    1.3 Bulk Crystal Growth
    1.3.1 Starting Materials
    1.3.2 Growth of Single-Crystal Ingots
    1.3.3 Wafers
    1.3.4 Doping
    1.4 Epitaxial Growth
    1.4.1 Lattice-Matching in Epitaxial Growth
    1.4.2 Vapor-Phase Epitaxy
    1.4.3 Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    2 ATOMS AND ELECTRONS
    2.1 Introduction to Physical Models
    2.2 Experimental Observations
    2.2.1 The Photoelectric Effect
    2.2.2 Atomic Spectra
    2.3 The Bohr Model
    2.4 Quantum Mechanics
    2.4.1 Probability and the Uncertainty Principle
    2.4.2 The Schrodinger Wave Equation
    2.4.3 Potential Well Problem
    2.4.4 Tunneling
    2.5 Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table
    2.5.1 The Hydrogen Atom
    2.5.2 The Periodic Table

    3 ENERGY BANDS AND CHARGE CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS
    3.1 Bonding Forces and Energy Bands in Solids
    3.1.1 Bonding Forces in Solids
    3.1.2 Energy Bands
    3.1.3 Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators
    3.1.4 Direct and Indirect Semiconductors
    3.1.5 Variation of Energy Bands with Alloy Composition
    3.2 Charge Carriers in Semiconductors
    3.2.1 Electrons and Holes
    3.2.2 Effective Mass
    3.2.3 Intrinsic Material
    3.2.4 Extrinsic Material
    3.2.5 Electrons and Holes in Quantum Wells
    3.3 Carrier Concentrations
    3.3.1 The Fermi Level
    3.3.2 Electron and Hole Concentrations at Equilibrium
    3.3.3 Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentrations
    3.3.4 Compensation and Space Charge Neutrality
    3.4 Drift of Carriers in Electric and Magnetic Fields
    3.4.1 Conductivity and Mobility
    3.4.2 Drift and Resistance
    3.4.3 Effects of Temperature and Doping on Mobility
    3.4.4 High-Field Effects
    3.4.5 The Hall Effect
    3.5 Invariance of the Fermi Level at Equilibrium

    4 EXCESS CARRIERS IN SEMICONDUCTORS
    4.1 Optical Absorption
    4.2 Luminescence
    4.2.1 Photoluminescence
    4.2.2 Electroluminescence
    4.3 Carrier Lifetime and Photoconductivity
    4.3.1 Direct Recombination of Electrons and Holes
    4.3.2 Indirect Recombination; Trapping
    4.3.3 Steady State Carrier Generation; Quasi-Fermi Levels
    4.3.4 Photoconductive Devices
    4.4 Diffusion of Carriers
    4.4.1 Diffusion Processes
    4.4.2 Diffusion and Drift of Carriers; Built-in Fields Contents
    4.4.3 Diffusion and Recombination; The Continuity Equation
    4.4.4 Steady State Carrier Injection; Diffusion Length
    4.4.5 The Haynes-Shockley Experiment
    4.4.6 Gradients in the Quasi-Fermi Levels

    5 JUNCTIONS
    5.1 Fabrication of p-n Junctions
    5.1.1 Thermal Oxidation
    5.1.2 Diffusion
    5.1.3 Rapid Thermal Processing
    5.1.4 Ion Implantation
    5.1.5 Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
    5.1.6 Photolithography
    5.1.7 Etching
    5.1.8 Metallization
    5.2 Equilibrium Conditions
    5.2.1 The Contact Potential
    5.2.2 Equilibrium Fermi Levels
    5.2.3 Space Charge at a Junction
    5.3 Forward- and Reverse-Biased Junctions; Steady State Conditions
    5.3.1 Qualitative Description of Current Flow at a Junction
    5.3.2 Carrier Injection
    5.3.3 Reverse Bias
    5.4 Reverse-Bias Breakdown
    5.4.1 Zener Breakdown
    5.4.2 Avalanche Breakdown
    5.4.3 Rectifiers
    5.4.4 The Breakdown Diode
    5.5 Transient and A-C Conditions
    5.5.1 Time Variation of Stored Charge
    5.5.2 Reverse Recovery Transient
    5.5.3 Switching Diodes
    5.5.4 Capacitance of p-n junctions
    5.5.5 The Varactor Diode
    5.6 Deviations from the Simple Theory
    5.6.1 Effects of Contact Potential on Carrier Injection
    5.6.2 Recombination and Generation in the Transition Region
    5.6.3 Ohmic Losses
    5.6.4 Graded Junctions
    5.7 Metal-Semiconductor Junctions
    5.7.1 Schottky Barriers
    5.7.2 Rectifying Contacts
    5.7.3 Ohmic Contacts
    5.7.4 Typical Schottky Barriers
    5.8 Heterojunctions

    6 FIELD-EFFECT TRANSISTORS
    6.1 Transistor Operation
    6.1.1 The Load Line
    6.1.2 Amplification and Switching
    6.2 The Junction FET
    6.2.1 Pinch-off and Saturation
    6.2.2 Gate Control
    6.2.3 Current-Voltage Characteristics
    6.3 The Metal-Semiconductor FET
    6.3.1 The GaAs MESFET
    6.3.2 The High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT)
    6.3.3 Short Channel Effects
    6.4 The Metal-lnsulator-Semiconductor FET
    6.4.1 Basic Operation and Fabrication
    6.4.2 The Ideal MOS Capacitor
    6.4.3 Effects of Real Surfaces
    6.4.4 Threshold Voltage
    6.4.5 MOS Capacitance-Voltage Analysis
    6.4.6 Time-Dependent Capacitance Measurements
    6.4.7 Current-Voltage Characteristics of MOS Gate Oxides
    6.5 The MOS Field-Effect Transistor
    6.5.1 Output Characteristics
    6.5.2 Transfer Characteristics
    6.5.3 Mobility Models
    6.5.4 Short Channel MOSFET l-V Characteristics
    6.5.5 Control of Threshold Voltage
    6.5.6 Substrate Bias Effects
    6.5.7 Subthreshold Characteristics
    6.5.8 Equivalent Circuit for the MOSFET
    6.5.9 MOSFET Scaling and Hot Electron Effects
    6.5.10 Drain-Induced Barrier Lowering
    6.5.1 1 Short Channel Effect and Narrow Width Effect
    6.5.12 Gate-Induced Drain Leakage

    7 BIPOLAR JUNCTION TRANSISTORS
    7.1 Fundamentals of BJT Operation
    7.2 Amplification with BJTs
    7.3 BJT Fabrication
    7.4 Minority Carrier Distributions and Terminal Currents
    7.4.1 Solution of the Diffusion Equation in the Base Region
    7.4.2 Evaluation of the Terminal Currents
    7.4.3 Approximations of the Terminal Currents
    7.4.4 Current Transfer Ratio
    7.5 Generalized Biasing
    7.5.1 The Coupled-Diode Model
    7.5.2 Charge Control Analysis
    7.6 Switching
    7.6.1 Cutoff
    7.6.2 Saturation
    7.6.3 The Switching Cycle
    7.6.4 Specifications for Switching Transistors
    7.7 Other Important Effects
    7.7.1 Drift in the Base Region
    7.7.2 Base Narrowing
    7.7.3 Avalanche Breakdown
    7.7.4 Injection Level; Thermal Effects
    7.7.5 Base Resistance and Emitter Crowding
    7.7.6 Gummel-Poon Model
    7.7.7 Kirk Effect
    7.8 Frequency Limitations of Transistors
    7.8.1 Capacitance and Charging Times
    7.8.2 Transit Time Effects
    7.8.3 Webster Effect
    7.8.4 High-Frequency Transistors
    7.9 Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    8 OPTOELECTRONIC DEVICES
    8.1 Photodiodes
    8.1.1 Current and Voltage in an Illuminated Junction
    8.1.2 Solar Cells
    8.1.3 Photodetectors
    8.1.4 Gain, Bandwidth, and Signal-to-Noise Ratio of Photodetectors
    8.2 Light-Emitting Diodes
    8.2.1 Light-Emitting Materials
    8.2.2 Fiber-Optic Communications
    8.3 Lasers
    8.4 Semiconductor Lasers
    8.4.1 Population Inversion at a Junction
    8.4.2 Emission Spectra for p-n Junction Lasers
    8.4.3 The Basic Semiconductor Laser
    8.4.4 Heterojunction Lasers
    8.4.5 Materials for Semiconductor Lasers

    9 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
    9.1 Background
    9.1.1 Advantages of Integration
    9.1.2 Types of Integrated Circuits
    9.2 Evolution of Integrated Circuits
    9.3 Monolithic Device Elements
    9.3.1 CMOS Process Integration
    9.3.2 Silicon-on-lnsulator (SOI)
    9.3.3 Integration of Other Circuit Elements
    9.4 Charge Transfer Devices
    9.4.1 Dynamic Effects in MOS Capacitors
    9.4.2 The Basic CCD
    9.4.3 Improvements on the Basic Structure
    9.4.4 Applications of CCDs
    9.5 Ultra Large-Scale Integration (ULSI)
    9.5.1 Logic Devices
    9.5.2 Semiconductor Memories
    9.6 Testing, Bonding, and Packaging
    9.6.1 Testing
    9.6.2 Wire Bonding
    9.6.3 Flip-Chip Techniques
    9.6.4 Packaging

    10 HIGH-FREQUENCY AND HIGH-POWER DEVICES
    10.1 Tunnel Diodes
    10.1.1 Degenerate Semiconductors
    10.2 The IMPATT Diode
    10.3 TheGunn Diode
    10.3.1 The Transferred-Electron Mechanism
    10.3.2 Formation and Drift of Space Charge Domains
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