The Art & Science Of Protective Relaying – C. Russell Manson – 1st Edition

Descripción

Por lo general, pensamos en un sistema de en términos de sus partes más impresionantes: las grandes estaciones generadoras, los transformadores, las líneas de alto voltaje, etc. Si bien estos son algunos de los elementos básicos, existen muchos otros componentes necesarios y fascinantes. El relé de protección es uno de ellos. El papel de los relés de protección en el diseño y operación de sistemas de energía eléctrica se explica mediante un breve examen de los antecedentes generales.

Hay tres aspectos de un sistema de que servirán a los propósitos de este texto. Estos aspectos son los siguientes:

A. Funcionamiento normal
B. Prevención de fallas eléctricas.
C. Mitigación de los efectos de fallas eléctricas.

El término operación normal no supone fallas del equipo, errores del personal ni actos de Dios. Se trata de los requisitos mínimos para el suministro de la carga existente y una cierta cantidad de carga futura prevista. Algunas de las consideraciones son:

A. Elección entre hidro, vapor u otras fuentes de energía.
B. Ubicación de las estaciones generadoras.
C. Transmisión de potencia a la carga.
D. Estudio de las características de la carga y planificación de su crecimiento futuro.
E.
F. Regulación de voltaje y frecuencia.
G. Operación del sistema.
E. Mantenimiento normal.

Las disposiciones para el funcionamiento normal implican el mayor gasto de equipo y funcionamiento, pero un sistema diseñado de acuerdo con este aspecto por sí solo no podría satisfacer los requisitos actuales. Las fallas en los equipos provocarían apagones intolerables

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  • Abnormal conditions other than short circuits

    A-c tripping
    Angle-impedance relay
    for tripping on 1088 of synchronism
    Angle of maximum torque, adjustment
    of power relays
    of shortcircuit relays
    Arcs, effect on distance relays, 345 resistance
    Arc - furnace - transformer protection
    ASA accuracy classification,, of current transformers
    of potential transformers
    Attenuation, carrier-current
    Automatic reclosing, see Reclosing,automatic
    Auxiliaries,, station, protection of
    see also Motor protection Back-up relaying, defined,
    effect of intermediate current sources,
    for bus protection
    generator external fault
    reversed third zone
    transformer external fault
    with pilot relaying
    Blind spot in pilot relaying
    Blinder with directional-comparison relaying
    Blocking pilot
    Blocking terminal, with a-c wire-pilot relaying,
    with directionalcomparison pilot relaying,
    with phase-comparison pilot relaying,
    Broken-delta connection, burden calculation,
    for detecting grounds in ungrounded systems
    for polarizing directionalground relays
    of capacitance potential devices
    Buchholz relay
    Burden, current-transformer,
    potentialtransformer,
    Bus protection
    automatic reclosing
    back-up relays
    circuitbreaker by-psasing
    combined power transformer and bus,
    current differential with overcurrent relays,
    current differential with overvoltagerelays,
    current differential withpercentage relays,
    directional comparison,
    fault bus
    grounding
    secondaries of differentially connected CT’s,
    partial-differential,
    ring-bus,
    testing,
    voltage differential with linear cou
    Bushing potential device,
    see Capacitance potential device
    Capacitance potential device
    broken burden
    comparison with instrument PT’s,
    couplingcapacitor insulation coordination,
    effect of overloading

    Capacitance potential device, equivalentcircuit,
    non-linear burdens,
    standard accuracy,
    standard rated burdens,
    Capacitor, series, effect on distance relaying,
    Capacitor tripping,
    Carrier-current attenuation,
    Carrier-current-pilot relaying, see Pilot relaying,
    carrier-current
    Circuit breaker, by-passing,
    standard capacities,
    Circulating-current pilot relaying,
    Cold-load pickup,
    Cold-load restoration,
    Compensated voltage,
    see Transformer
    compensation
    Constant-product characteristic,
    Contact definitions,
    Contact races in pilot relaying,
    Continuous pilot,
    Control spring,
    Conventions, vector,
    Corrosion, effect of polarity on
    Coupling-capacitor description,
    Coupling-capacitor insulation coordination,
    Coupling-capacitor potential device, Bee Capacitance potential device
    Current-balance relay, directional type,
    for line protection,
    overcurrent type,
    Current biasing, for mho relay,
    for offset impedance relay,
    to avoid distance-relay misoperation on arcs,
    Current compensation for ground distance relays
    Current switching for distance relays
    Current transformers,
    accuracy calcula
    ASA accuracy classification, burden,
    for generator differential relaying,
    ratiocorrection-factor curves
    secondaryexcitation curves
    grounding the
    secondaries of differentially connected CT’s,
    overvoltage in secondary,
    polarity and connections,
    proximity effect,
    Current transformers, requirements for pilot relaying, 377 secondary leakage reactance,
    transient errors,
    types,zero-phase-sequencecurrent shunt
    D-c offset, effect on induction relays,
    overreach of distance relays,
    overreach of overcurrent relays,
    time constant,
    D-c relays, single-quantity,
    directional,
    Differential relays,
    see alsoPercentagedifferential relays
    Directional-comparison relaying,
    for bus protection,
    principle of operation,
    see also Line protection with pilot relays
    Directional control, of electromagnetic relays
    of single-quantity induction relay
    Directional-overcurrent relay

    Directional relays,, a-c types
    connections,,
    power,
    short circuits,
    characteristics on R-X diagram,
    d-c types,,
    use of shunts,
    effect of mutual
    induction on ground relays,
    electromagnetic-attraction type,
    groundrelay polarization,
    misoperating
    tendencies,
    negative-phase-aequence
    type, 330 operating characteristics,
    response of polyphase relays to positive and negative phase sequence,,
    response ofainglephase relays to short circuits
    Distance relays,, current and voltage switching,
    effect of power swings and lose of
    synchronism,, effect of wye-deltatransformer between relay and fault,
    electronic type, ground-relay connections,
    impedance seen during faults,,
    Generator protection, overvoltage,
    potential-transformer fuse blowing,
    prime mover,
    station auxiliary,
    stator overheating,
    stator short circuit,
    calculation of CT errors,
    ground faults,
    sensitive,
    ground faults in unit generators,
    overcurrent relays for,
    turn-to-turn faults,
    unbalanced phase currents,
    vibration,
    Ground-distance-relay connections,
    Ground-fault neutralizer, effect on line relaying,
    to mitigate the effect of a fault,
    Grounding protective relay for trans forme rprotection,
    Ground preference,
    Ground resistance,
    Grounding-tranaformer protection,
    Hsrmonic-current restraint, for distance relays,,
    for transformer differential relays,

    Holding coil,
    Impedance diagram, see R-X diagram Impedance relay, characteristic on R-X
    diagram, for line protection, general, see also Distance relays Induction-cup and induction-loop structures,

    Induction-type relay, directional, generalcharacteristics,,
    single-quantity, structures, torque production, Insulating transformer for pilot-wire circuits,,
    Intermittent pilot,
    Line protection with distance relays adjustment of distance relays area, effectof, blocking tripping on of
    synchro , choice between impedance, reactance, and mho,, connections of ground distance relays,,Distance relays,, use of low-tension voltage
    see also Line protection with distance relaysDistribution-circuit protection, see Lineprotection with overcurrent relays
    Drop-out defined, Electric arc-furnace-transformer protection,
    Electromagnetic-attraction relay, directional,
    general characteristics,, single-quantity,
    Electronic relay, directionalcomparison pilot,

    Evaluation of protective relaying,
    Expulsion protective gaps, effect of, on distance relays,
    External-fault back-up relaying, see Back-up relaying
    Fail ures,, electrical, see Faults
    False residual current,
    Fault bus,
    Faults, mitigation of effects of, prevention of,
    probability of, effect on practice, 11 see also Short circuits
    Fire, protection against,
    Fire-pump-motor protection,
    Footing resistance, tower-,
    Frequency, compensation of relays for changes
    in, effect on induction relays
    Frequency-converter protection, see Generator
    protection
    Fundamental principles of protective relaying,
    Fuse, coordinating with a,
    Fuse blowing, potential-tranaformer, effect on distance relays
    effect on generator relays
    Generator protection, bearing overheating,
    external-fault back-up, m field ground,

    loss of excitation,

    of synchronism,, miscellaneous,
    motoring,
    open circuits,, 215 over excitation,, over speed,,
    Line protection with distance relays, current
    and voltage switching, expulsion protective gaps, effect of, fuse blowing,
    effect of, electronic relays,
    intermediate current sources, effect of,
    low-tension current, use of, low-tension
    voltage, use of, magnetizing inrush, effect
    of, overreach, purposeful
    tripping on loss of synchronism,
    reclosing, automatic, series capacitor,
    effect of, 367 see also Distance relays
    Line protection with overcurrent relays,
    a-c and capacitor tripping,
    adjustment of ground vs. phase re lays,
    adjustment of inverse-time-overcur
    rent relays,
    arc and ground resistance,
    directional feature,
    fuses, coordination with,
    ground faults in ungrounded systems,
    detection of,
    ground-fault neutralizers, effect of,
    instantaneous overcurrent relays,, use of,
    inverseness,, choice of, in relay char acteristics,
    limiting ground-fault-current magni tude, effect of,
    loop circuits,, effect on relay adjust
    misoperation prevention of aingle
    directional-overcurrent re during ground faults,
    negative-phase sequence ground di rectional relays,,
    open phases, effect of,
    overreach of instantaneous overcur
    rent relays,,
    polarizing ground-relay directional
    unite,
    reclosing, automatic,
    restoration of service after prolonged outage,
    single-phase vs. polyphase directional relays,,
    transient CT errors,
    two vs. three relays for phase-fault protection,
    Line protection with overcurrent relays, see also
    Overcurrent relays
    Line protection with pilot relays, a-c
    wire-pilot relaying,
    back-up protection,
    CT requirements,
    multi terminal lines,
    sensitivity,
    see also Pilot relaying, a-c wire-;
    Pilot relaying, d-c wire relaying, attenu ation,
    sleet detection,
    supervision, automatic,
    combined phase- and directional com
    parison, mutual induction, effect on ground relays,
    when to use,
    directional comparison, electronic,

    low-tension voltage, use of,
    multi terminal lines,
    sensitivity,
    transients,, effect of,
    when to use,
    see also Pilot relaying, carrier-cur ,
    phase comparison, back-up protection,
    multi terminal lines,
    sensitivity,
    when to use,
    see also Pilot relaying, carrier-cur

    rectional relays,,
    open phases, effect of,
    overreach of instantaneous overcur
    rent relays,,
    polarizing ground-relay directional
    unite,
    reclosing, automatic,
    restoration of service after prolonged
    outage,
    single-phase vs. polyphase directional
    relays,,
    transient CT errors,
    two vs. three relays for phase-fault
    protection,
    Line protection with overcurrent relays, see also
    Overcurrent relays
    Line protection with pilot relays, a-c
    wire-pilot relaying,
    back-up protection,
    CT requirements,
    multi terminal lines,
    sensitivity,
    see also Pilot relaying, a-c wire-;
    Pilot relaying, d-c wire relaying, attenuation,
    sleet detection,
    supervision, automatic,
    combined phase- and directional com
    parison, mutual induction, effect
    on ground relays,
    when to use,
    directional comparison, electronic,
    low-tension voltage, use of,
    multi terminal lines,
    sensitivity,
    transients,, effect of,
    when to use,
    see also Pilot relaying, carrier-cur ,
    phase comparison, back-up protection,
    multi terminal lines,
    sensitivity,
    when to use,
    see also Pilot relaying, carrier-current
    reclosing, high-apeed,,
    when to use pilot relaying,
    Line trap,
    Linear couplers,
    Load shedding,
    Locking in, with generator differential relaying,
    with transformer differential relaying,
    Loss-of-excitation protection,
    Loss-of-field protection,
    Loss of synchronism, characteristics on RX
    diagram, derivation of relay current and
    voltage, effect on distance relays,
    generator protection, trip-blocking relay,tripping relay,
    Low-tension current for distance relays,
    Low-tension voltage, for directional relaying,
    for distance relaying, general,
    Magetizing-current inrush, effect on distance
    relays, effect on transformer differential
    relays, in parallel transformer banks,
    Maximum torque, angle of, adjustment,
    power relays, short-circuit relays, 55
    Memory action, described, effect of voltage
    source location,
    Mho relay, characteristics on R-X diagram,
    for line protection, operating
    characteristic,
    Microwave-pilot relaying, see Pilot relaying,
    microwave
    Minimum pickup of directional relays
    Mixing transformer for wire-pilot relaying,
    Modified-impendance rela

    Motor protection, field ground, fire-pump,
    of excitation, of
    synchronism, rotor overheating,
    stator overheating, stator short circuit,
    unattended motors, under voltage,,
    Multiterminal-line protection, with a-c wire-pilot
    relaying, with directional-comparieon
    pilot relaying, with phasecomparison
    pilot relaying,
    Mutual induction, effect of, on direc relays,,
    393 from power circuit to pilot wires,, 88
    Neutralizing transformers for wire-pilot circuits,,
    Normally blocked trip circuit,
    Open phase, effect of, on directional relays,
    equivalent circuits for,
    protection of generators against,
    Operating principles,, basic, electromagneticattraction relays,,
    Operating principles, directional type, singlequantity type, induction relays: directional
    type, singlequantity type,
    Operation indicator,
    Operator vs. protective relays,
    Opposed-voltage pilot relaying,
    Out of step, see Loss of synchronism
    Overcurrent relays, combination of
    instantaneous and time delay, pickup or
    reset, time delay see also Line
    protection with overcurrent relays
    Overreach, of distance relays, of
    instantaneous overcurrent relays,
    Over travel,, defined, effect of, on
    overcurrent-relay adjustment,
    Overvoltage, in CI secondaries, see also
    Generator protection
    Overvoltage relays, pickup or reset,, time
    delay,
    Percentage-differential relays, description, for
    bus protection, for generator protection,
    for transformer protection, locking-in
    for internal faults product restraint,
    variable percent slope,
    Petersen coil, see Ground-fault neutralizer
    Phase-comparison relaying, principle of
    operation, see also Line protection with
    pilot relays
    Pilot relaying, circulating current,
    general, line protection, opposed
    voltage, pilot-wire protection, pilotwire requirements,
    pilot-wire supervision,
    remote tripping, see also Line
    protection with pilot relays
    Pilot relaying, carrier-current-, directional
    comparison, general, intermittent or
    continuous, phase comparison, pilot
    described, supervision of pilot channel,
    see also Line protection with pilot relays ;
    Pilot relaying,-d-c wire-, basic principles,
    description of pilot
    Pilot relaying, micro-wave-, description of
    channel, general, remote
    tripping, see also Line protection with
    pilot relays
    Pilot relaying, principles of, ground preference,
    purpose of a pilot, sensitivity levels,
    tripping and blocking pilots,

    Polarizing quantity, of a-c directional relays’
    of d-c directional relays, of directional
    units of ground relays,
    Polyphase directional relays, advantages and
    disadvantages, response to positive- and
    negative volt-amps
    Potential device, see Capacitance potential
    device
    Potential transformers, accuracy,
    connections, effect of fuse blowing, on
    distance relaying, on generator relaying,
    low-tension voltage for distance relays,

    Power-balance relaying for line protection,
    Power-rectifier-transformer protection,
    Power swings, see Loss of synchronism
    Power transformer and autotransformer
    protection, external-fault backup,
    gasaccumulator and pressure relays,
    grounding protective relay, overcurrent
    relaying, percentagedifferential relaying,
    CT accuracy requirements, CT
    connections, CT ratios, magnetizing
    inrush, effect of, parallel banks,
    percent slope, choice of, two-winding
    relay for threewinding transformer, zerophasesequence-current shunt, remote
    tripping,
    Primary relaying defined,
    Product restraint for generator differential
    relays,
    Protective relaying, evaluation of, function
    of, functional characteristics of,
    fundamental principles of,
    Ratings, relay, contact, current and voltage,
    holding coil, seal-in coil, and target,
    Ratio correction factor, see Current
    transformers; Voltage trans formers
    Reactance relay, characteristic on R-X diagram,
    operating characteristic, partialdifferential bus protection, see also Line
    protection with distance relays
    Reclosing, automatic, affected by remote
    tripping, effect on blocking-terminal
    pilot equipment, mitigation of fault
    effects, of bus breakers,, single-phase
    switching, synchronism check
    with distance relaying, with overcurrent
    relaying, with pilot relaying,
    Rectifier-transformer protection,
    Regulating-transformer protection, ex fault
    back-up, in-phase type, phase-shifting type,
    Reliability, a functional relay characteristic,
    Remote tripping, by carrier current, by
    microwave, by pilot wire, for powertransformer protection, frequency-shift system,
    Replica-type relays, for generator protection,
    for motor protection,
    Reset, adjustment of, defined, ratio to
    pickup, electromagnetic relays, induction
    relays, time of induction relays,
    Reversed third zone, for back-up with carrier
    pilot, where a line includes a
    transformer,
    R-X diagram, los-of-synchronism char ,
    appearance to distance relays principle
    of, short-circuit characteristics,
    appearance to distance relays wyedelta
    transformer between relay and fault
    superposition of relay and system
    characteristics,
    Seal-in coil or relay,
    Secondary excitation curves,,
    Selectivity, a functional relay characteristic,
    Sensitivity, a functional relay char , levels of
    blocking and tripping for pilot relaying
    Shaded-pole structure,
    Short circuits, derivation of relay current and
    voltage, impedance seen by distance
    relays,, table of currents,, 164 table of
    voltages,, see also Faults
    Single-phase switching,
    Sleet-accumulation detection with carrier
    current,
    Speed, a functional relay
    characteristic,,
    Split-phase relaying, combined with percentage
    differential,
    for generators,
    Stability, system, benefited by protective relaying,
    Step-voltage-regulator protection,
    Supervision, automatic, of carrier channel,
    of pilot-wire circuits,
    Synchronism check with automatic reclosing,
    Target,
    Telephone-circuit restrictions,
    Testing, relay, field, manual,
    Time characteristics, adjustment of, definitions,,
    of d-c directional relays,
    of electromagnetic-attraction relays,
    of induction relays,
    Time constant of d-c component,
    Torque control, see Directional control
    Torque production in induction relays,
    Tower-footing resistance,
    Transferred tripping, see Remote tripping
    Transformer-drop compensation, fordirectional-comparison pilot relaying,
    for distance relaying,
    Transformer protection, see: Electric
    arcfurnace-transformer protection;
    Grounding-transformer protection; Powerrectifiertransformer protection;
    Powertransformer and autotransformer
    protection; Regulating-trans former
    protection; Step-voltage protection
    Transients, effect of, on directional pilot relaying,
    on distance relaying,
    on electromagnetic-attraction relays,
    on overcurrent relays,
    Transient blocking,
    Transient shunt, for distance relays,
    for overcurrent relays,

    Transmission-line protection, with distance relaying,
    with overcurrent relaying,
    Tranemission-line protection, with pilot relaying,
    Trap, line,
    Tripping pilot,
    Tripping suppressor for transformer differential relays,
    Tripping, undesired, vs. failure to trip,
    Undercurrent and under voltage relays, pickup or reset,
    Universal relay torque equation,
    Variable restraint for generator differential relays,
    Vector conventions,
    Vibration, of electromagnetic-attrao relays,
    protection for generators,
    Voltage-balance relays,
    Voltage compensation for ground distance relays,
    Voltage-regulator protection, see also
    Regulating-transformer protection; Stepvoltage-regulator protection
    Voltage switching for distance relays,
    Voltage transformers, see Capacitance potential
    devices; Potential transformers
    Watthour-meter structure,
    Wire-pilot relaying, see Pilot relaying, a-c wire-;
    Pilot relaying, d-c wire
    Zero-phase-sequence-current shunt, currenttransformer connections, used with
    transformer differential relays
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