Materials Science and Engineering: An Introduction – William D. Callister, David G. Rethwisch – 9th Edition

Descripción

Science and Engineering: An Introduction” de William D. Callister y David G. Rethwisch es un libro de texto ampliamente utilizado que proporciona una introducción completa al campo de la ciencia e ingeniería de materiales. Esta novena edición se basa en el éxito de ediciones anteriores, ofreciendo contenido y ejemplos actualizados para reflejar los últimos avances en el campo. Sobre la base del extraordinario éxito de las ocho ediciones más vendidas, la nueva Novena Edición de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales de Callister continúa promoviendo la comprensión de los estudiantes de los tres tipos principales de materiales (, cerámicas y polímeros) y compuestos, así como las relaciones que existen entre los elementos estructurales de los materiales y sus propiedades.

En esta novena edición hemos conservado los objetivos y enfoques para la enseñanza de la ciencia e ingeniería de los materiales que se presentaron en ediciones anteriores. El primer objetivo, y principal, es presentar los fundamentos básicos en un nivel apropiado para estudiantes universitarios que han completado sus cursos de cálculo, y física de primer año.

El segundo objetivo es presentar el tema en un orden lógico, de lo simple a lo más complejo. Cada capítulo se basa en el contenido de los anteriores. El tercer objetivo, o , que nos esforzamos por mantener a lo largo del texto, es que si vale la pena tratar un tema o concepto, entonces vale la pena tratar con suficiente detalle y en la medida en que los estudiantes tengan la oportunidad de comprenderlo sin tener que consultar otras fuentes, Además, en la mayoría de los casos, se proporciona cierta relevancia práctica.

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  • 1. Introduction 1
    Learning Objectives 2
    1.1 Historical Perspective 2
    1.2 Materials Science and Engineering 2
    1.3 Why Study Materials Science and Engineering? 4
    Case Study?Liberty Ship Failures 5
    1.4 Classification of Materials 6
    Case Study?Carbonated Beverage Containers 11
    1.5 Advanced Materials 12
    1.6 Modern Materials? Needs 14
    1.7 Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Correlations 15
    Summary 17
    References 17
    Questions 18

    2. Atomic Structure and Interatomic Bonding 19
    Learning Objectives 20
    2.1 Introduction 20
    ATOMIC STRUCTURE 20
    2.2 Fundamental Concepts 20
    2.3 Electrons in Atoms 22
    2.4 The Periodic Table 28
    ATOMIC BONDING IN SOLIDS 30
    2.5 Bonding Forces and Energies 30
    2.6 Primary Interatomic Bonds 32
    2.7 Secondary Bonding or van der Waals Bonding 39
    Materials of Importance?Water (Its Volume Expansion Upon Freezing) 42
    2.8 Mixed Bonding 43
    2.9 Molecules 44
    2.10 Bonding Type-Materials Classification Correlations 44
    Summary 45
    Equation Summary 46
    List of Symbols 46
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 47
    Important Terms and Concepts 47
    References 47
    Questions and Problems 48
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 50

    3. The Structure of Crystalline Solids 51
    Learning Objectives 52
    3.1 Introduction 52
    CRYSTAL STRUCTURES 52
    3.2 Fundamental Concepts 52
    3.3 Unit Cells 53
    3.4 Metallic Crystal Structures 54
    3.5 Density Computations 60
    3.6 Polymorphism and Allotropy 60
    Materials of Importance?Tin (Its Allotropic Transformation) 61
    3.7 Crystal Systems 62
    CRYSTALLOGRAPHIC POINTS, DIRECTIONS, AND PLANES 64
    3.8 Point Coordinates 64
    3.9 Crystallographic Directions 67
    3.10 Crystallographic Planes 75
    3.11 Linear and Planar Densities 81
    3.12 Close-Packed Crystal Structures 82
    CRYSTALLINE AND NONCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 84
    3.13 Single Crystals 84
    3.14 Polycrystalline Materials 84
    3.15 Anisotropy 86
    3.16 X-Ray Diffraction: Determination of Crystal Structures 87
    3.17 Noncrystalline Solids 92
    Summary 93
    Equation Summary 95
    List of Symbols 96
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 96
    Important Terms and Concepts 97
    References 97
    Questions and Problems 97
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 104

    4. Imperfections in Solids 105
    Learning Objectives 106
    4.1 Introduction 106
    POINT DEFECTS 106
    4.2 Vacancies and Self-Interstitials 106
    4.3 Impurities in Solids 108
    4.4 Specification of Composition 111
    MISCELLANEOUS IMPERFECTIONS 115
    4.5 Dislocations?Linear Defects 115
    4.6 Interfacial Defects 118
    Materials of Importance?Catalysts (and Surface Defects) 121
    4.7 Bulk or Volume Defects 122
    4.8 Atomic Vibrations 122
    MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION 123
    4.9 Basic Concepts of Microscopy 123
    4.10 Microscopic Techniques 124
    4.11 Grain-Size Determination 128
    Summary 131
    Equation Summary 132
    List of Symbols 133
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 134
    Important Terms and Concepts 135
    References 135
    Questions and Problems 135
    Design Problems 138
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 139

    5. Diffusion 140
    Learning Objectives 141
    5.1 Introduction 141
    5.2 Diffusion Mechanisms 142
    5.3 Fick?s First Law 143
    5.4 Fick?s Second Law?Nonsteady-State Diffusion 145
    5.5 Factors That Influence Diffusion 149
    5.6 Diffusion in Semiconducting Materials 154
    Material of Importance?Aluminum for Integrated Circuit Interconnects 157
    5.7 Other Diffusion Paths 158
    Summary 158
    Equation Summary 159
    List of Symbols 160
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 160
    Important Terms and Concepts 162
    References 162
    Questions and Problems 162
    Design Problems 166
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 167

    6. Mechanical Properties of Metals 168
    Learning Objectives 169
    6.1 Introduction 169
    6.2 Concepts of Stress and Strain 170
    ELASTIC DEFORMATION 174
    6.3 Stress?Strain Behavior 174
    6.4 Anelasticity 177
    6.5 Elastic Properties of Materials 177
    PLASTIC DEFORMATION 180
    6.6 Tensile Properties 180
    6.7 True Stress and Strain 187
    6.8 Elastic Recovery After Plastic Deformation 190
    6.9 Compressive, Shear, and Torsional Deformation 191
    6.10 Hardness 191
    PROPERTY VARIABILITY AND DESIGN/SAFETY FACTORS 197
    6.11 Variability of Material Properties 197
    6.12 Design/Safety Factors 199
    Summary 203
    Equation Summary 205
    List of Symbols 205
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 206
    Important Terms and Concepts 206
    References 207
    Questions and Problems 207
    Design Problems 213
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 214

    7. Dislocations and Strengthening Mechanisms 216
    Learning Objectives 217
    7.1 Introduction 217
    DISLOCATIONS AND PLASTIC DEFORMATION 217
    7.2 Basic Concepts 218
    7.3 Characteristics of Dislocations 220
    7.4 Slip Systems 221
    7.5 Slip in Single Crystals 223
    7.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Materials 226
    7.7 Deformation by Twinning 228
    MECHANISMS OF STRENGTHENING IN METALS 229
    7.8 Strengthening by Grain Size Reduction 229
    7.9 Solid-Solution Strengthening 231
    7.10 Strain Hardening 232
    RECOVERY, RECRYSTALLIZATION, AND GRAIN GROWTH 235
    7.11 Recovery 235
    7.12 Recrystallization 236
    7.13 Grain Growth 240
    Summary 242
    Equation Summary 244
    List of Symbols 244
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 245
    Important Terms and Concepts 246
    References 246
    Questions and Problems 246
    Design Problems 250
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 250

    8. Failure 251
    Learning Objectives 252
    8.1 Introduction 252
    FRACTURE 253
    8.2 Fundamentals of Fracture 253
    8.3 Ductile Fracture 253
    8.4 Brittle Fracture 255
    8.5 Principles of Fracture Mechanics 257
    8.6 Fracture Toughness Testing 265
    FATIGUE 270
    8.7 Cyclic Stresses 270
    8.8 The S?N Curve 272
    8.9 Crack Initiation and Propagation 276
    8.10 Factors That Affect Fatigue Life 278
    8.11 Environmental Effects 280
    CREEP 281
    8.12 Generalized Creep Behavior 281
    8.13 Stress and Temperature Effects 282
    8.14 Data Extrapolation Methods 285
    8.15 Alloys for High-Temperature Use 286
    Summary 287
    Equation Summary 290
    List of Symbols 290
    Important Terms and Concepts 291
    References 291
    Questions and Problems 291
    Design Problems 295
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 296

    9. Phase Diagrams 297
    Learning Objectives 298
    9.1 Introduction 298
    DEFINITIONS AND BASIC CONCEPTS 298
    9.2 Solubility Limit 299
    9.3 Phases 300
    9.4 Microstructure 300
    9.5 Phase Equilibria 300
    9.6 One-Component (or Unary) Phase Diagrams 301
    BINARY PHASE DIAGRAMS 302
    9.7 Binary Isomorphous Systems 303
    9.8 Interpretation of Phase Diagrams 305
    9.9 Development of Microstructure in Isomorphous Alloys 309
    9.10 Mechanical Properties of Isomorphous Alloys 312
    9.11 Binary Eutectic Systems 312
    9.12 Development of Microstructure in Eutectic Alloys 318
    Materials of Importance?Lead-Free Solders 319
    9.13 Equilibrium Diagrams Having Intermediate Phases or Compounds 325
    9.14 Eutectoid and Peritectic Reactions 328
    9.15 Congruent Phase Transformations 329
    9.16 Ceramic and Ternary Phase Diagrams 330
    9.17 The Gibbs Phase Rule 330
    THE IRON?CARBON SYSTEM 333
    9.18 The Iron?Iron Carbide (Fe?Fe3C) Phase Diagram 333
    9.19 Development of Microstructure in Iron?Carbon Alloys 336
    9.20 The Influence of Other Alloying Elements 344
    Summary 344
    Equation Summary 346
    List of Symbols 347
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 347
    Important Terms and Concepts 349
    References 349
    Questions and Problems 349
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 355

    10. Phase Transformations: Development of Microstructure and Alteration of Mechanical Properties 356
    Learning Objectives 357
    10.1 Introduction 357
    PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS 357
    10.2 Basic Concepts 357
    10.3 The Kinetics of Phase Transformations 358
    10.4 Metastable Versus Equilibrium States 369
    MICROSTRUCTURAL AND PROPERTY CHANGES IN IRON?CARBON ALLOYS 370
    10.5 Isothermal Transformation Diagrams 370
    10.6 Continuous-Cooling Transformation Diagrams 381
    10.7 Mechanical Behavior of Iron?Carbon Alloys 384
    10.8 Tempered Martensite 388
    10.9 Review of Phase Transformations and Mechanical Properties for Iron?Carbon Alloys 391
    Materials of Importance?Shape-Memory Alloys 394
    Summary 397
    Equation Summary 398
    List of Symbols 399
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 399
    Important Terms and Concepts 401
    References 402
    Questions and Problems 402
    Design Problems 406
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 406

    11. Applications and Processing of Metal Alloys 408
    Learning Objectives 409
    11.1 Introduction 409
    TYPES OF METAL ALLOYS 410
    11.2 Ferrous Alloys 410
    11.3 Nonferrous Alloys 422
    Materials of Importance?Metal Alloys Used for Euro Coins 433
    FABRICATION OF METALS 434
    11.4 Forming Operations 434
    11.5 Casting 436
    11.6 Miscellaneous Techniques 437
    THERMAL PROCESSING OF METALS 439
    11.7 Annealing Processes 439
    11.8 Heat Treatment of Steels 441
    11.9 Precipitation Hardening 451
    Summary 458
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 460
    Important Terms and Concepts 460
    References 463
    Questions and Problems 463
    Design Problems 464
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 466

    12. Structures and Properties of Ceramics 467
    Learning Objectives 468
    12.1 Introduction 468
    CERAMIC STRUCTURES 468
    12.2 Crystal Structures 469
    12.3 Silicate Ceramics 477
    12.4 Carbon 481
    12.5 Imperfections in Ceramics 482
    12.6 Diffusion in Ionic Materials 486
    12.7 Ceramic Phase Diagrams 487
    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 490
    12.8 Brittle Fracture of Ceramics 491
    12.9 Stress?Strain Behavior 495
    12.10 Mechanisms of Plastic Deformation 497
    12.11 Miscellaneous Mechanical
    Considerations 499
    Summary 501
    Equation Summary 503
    List of Symbols 503
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 503
    Important Terms and Concepts 504
    References 505
    Questions and Problems 505
    Design Problems 509
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 509

    13. Applications and Processing of Ceramics 510
    Learning Objectives 511
    13.1 Introduction 511
    TYPES AND APPLICATIONS OF CERAMICS 512
    13.2 Glasses 512
    13.3 Glass?Ceramics 512
    13.4 Clay Products 514
    13.5 Refractories 514
    13.6 Abrasives 516
    13.7 Cements 517
    13.8 Carbons 518
    13.9 Advanced Ceramics 521
    FABRICATION AND PROCESSING OF CERAMICS 525
    13.10 Fabrication and Processing of Glasses and Glass?Ceramics 526
    13.11 Fabrication and Processing of Clay Products 531
    13.12 Powder Pressing 535
    13.13 Tape Casting 537
    Summary 538
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 540
    Important Terms and Concepts 542
    References 543
    Questions and Problems 543
    Design Problem 544
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 544

    14. Polymer Structures 545
    Learning Objectives 546
    14.1 Introduction 546
    14.2 Hydrocarbon Molecules 546
    14.3 Polymer Molecules 549
    14.4 The Chemistry of Polymer Molecules 549
    14.5 Molecular Weight 553
    14.6 Molecular Shape 556
    14.7 Molecular Structure 558
    14.8 Molecular Configurations 559
    14.9 Thermoplastic and Thermosetting Polymers 562
    14.10 Copolymers 563
    14.11 Polymer Crystallinity 564
    14.12 Polymer Crystals 568
    14.13 Defects in Polymers 570
    14.14 Diffusion in Polymeric Materials 571
    Summary 573
    Equation Summary 575
    List of Symbols 575
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 575
    Important Terms and Concepts 576
    References 576
    Questions and Problems 577
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 579

    15. Characteristics, Applications, and Processing of Polymers 580
    Learning Objectives 581
    15.1 Introduction 581
    MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYMERS 581
    15.2 Stress?Strain Behavior 581
    15.3 Macroscopic Deformation 584
    15.4 Viscoelastic Deformation 584
    15.5 Fracture of Polymers 588
    15.6 Miscellaneous Mechanical Characteristics 590
    MECHANISMS OF DEFORMATION AND FOR STRENGTHENING OF POLYMERS 591
    15.7 Deformation of Semicrystalline Polymers 591
    15.8 Factors That Influence the Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers 593
    Materials of Importance?Shrink-Wrap Polymer Films 597
    15.9 Deformation of Elastomers 597
    CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING, AND GLASSTRANSITION PHENOMENA IN POLYMERS 599
    15.10 Crystallization 600
    15.11 Melting 601
    15.12 The Glass Transition 601
    15.13 Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 601
    15.14 Factors That Influence Melting and Glass Transition Temperatures 603
    POLYMER TYPES 605
    15.15 Plastics 605
    Materials of Importance?Phenolic Billiard Balls 607
    15.16 Elastomers 608
    15.17 Fibers 610
    15.18 Miscellaneous Applications 610
    15.19 Advanced Polymeric Materials 612
    POLYMER SYNTHESIS AND PROCESSING 616
    15.20 Polymerization 616
    15.21 Polymer Additives 618
    15.22 Forming Techniques for Plastics 620
    15.23 Fabrication of Elastomers 622
    15.24 Fabrication of Fibers and Films 622
    Summary 624
    Equation Summary 626
    List of Symbols 626
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 626
    Important Terms and Concepts 629
    References 629
    Questions and Problems 629
    Design Questions 633
    Fundamentals of Engineering Question 633

    16. Composites 634
    Learning Objectives 635
    16.1 Introduction 635
    PARTICLE-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 637
    16.2 Large-Particle Composites 637
    16.3 Dispersion-Strengthened Composites 641
    FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES 642
    16.4 Influence of Fiber Length 642
    16.5 Influence of Fiber Orientation and Concentration 643
    16.6 The Fiber Phase 651
    16.7 The Matrix Phase 653
    16.8 Polymer-Matrix Composites 653
    16.9 Metal-Matrix Composites 659
    16.10 Ceramic-Matrix Composites 660
    16.11 Carbon?Carbon Composites 662
    16.12 Hybrid Composites 662
    16.13 Processing of Fiber-Reinforced Composites 663
    STRUCTURAL COMPOSITES 665
    16.14 Laminar Composites 665
    16.15 Sandwich Panels 667
    Case Study?Use of Composites in the Boeing 787 Dreamliner 669
    16.16 Nanocomposites 670
    Summary 673
    Equation Summary 675
    List of Symbols 676
    Important Terms and Concepts 676
    References 676
    Questions and Problems 676
    Design Problems 679
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 680

    17. Corrosion and Degradation of Materials 681
    Learning Objectives 682
    17.1 Introduction 682
    CORROSION OF METALS 683
    17.2 Electrochemical Considerations 683
    17.3 Corrosion Rates 689
    17.4 Prediction of Corrosion Rates 691
    17.5 Passivity 698
    17.6 Environmental Effects 699
    17.7 Forms of Corrosion 699
    17.8 Corrosion Environments 707
    17.9 Corrosion Prevention 707
    17.10 Oxidation 709
    CORROSION OF CERAMIC MATERIALS 712
    DEGRADATION OF POLYMERS 713
    17.11 Swelling and Dissolution 713
    17.12 Bond Rupture 715
    17.13 Weathering 716
    Summary 717
    Equation Summary 719
    List of Symbols 719
    Important Terms and Concepts 720
    References 720
    Questions and Problems 721
    Design Problems 723
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 724

    18. Electrical Properties 725
    Learning Objectives 726
    18.1 Introduction 726
    ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION 726
    18.2 Ohm?s Law 726
    18.3 Electrical Conductivity 727
    18.4 Electronic and Ionic Conduction 728
    18.5 Energy Band Structures in Solids 728
    18.6 Conduction in Terms of Band and Atomic Bonding Models 730
    18.7 Electron Mobility 732
    18.8 Electrical Resistivity of Metals 733
    18.9 Electrical Characteristics of Commercial Alloys 736
    Materials of Importance?Aluminum Electrical Wires 736
    SEMICONDUCTIVITY 738
    18.10 Intrinsic Semiconduction 738
    18.11 Extrinsic Semiconduction 741
    18.12 The Temperature Dependence of Carrier Concentration 744
    18.13 Factors That Affect Carrier Mobility 745
    18.14 The Hall Effect 749
    18.15 Semiconductor Devices 751
    ELECTRICAL CONDUCTION IN IONIC CERAMICS AND IN POLYMERS 757
    18.16 Conduction in Ionic Materials 758
    18.17 Electrical Properties of Polymers 758
    DIELECTRIC BEHAVIOR 759
    18.18 Capacitance 759
    18.19 Field Vectors and Polarization 761
    18.20 Types of Polarization 764
    18.21 Frequency Dependence of the Dielectric Constant 766
    18.22 Dielectric Strength 767
    18.23 Dielectric Materials 767
    OTHER ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MATERIALS 767
    18.24 Ferroelectricity 767
    18.25 Piezoelectricity 768
    Materials of Importance?Piezoelectric Ceramic Ink-Jet Printer Heads 769
    Summary 770
    Equation Summary 773
    List of Symbols 774
    Processing/Structure/Properties/Performance Summary 774
    Important Terms and Concepts 778
    References 778
    Questions and Problems 778
    Design Problems 782
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 783

    19. Thermal Properties 785
    Learning Objectives 786
    19.1 Introduction 786
    19.2 Heat Capacity 786
    19.3 Thermal Expansion 790
    Materials of Importance?Invar and Other Low-Expansion Alloys 792
    19.4 Thermal Conductivity 793
    19.5 Thermal Stresses 796
    Summary 798
    Equation Summary 799
    List of Symbols 799
    Important Terms and Concepts 800
    References 800
    Questions and Problems 800
    Design Problems 802
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 802

    20. Magnetic Properties 803
    Learning Objectives 804
    20.1 Introduction 804
    20.2 Basic Concepts 804
    20.3 Diamagnetism and Paramagnetism 808
    20.4 Ferromagnetism 810
    20.5 Antiferromagnetism and Ferrimagnetism 811
    20.6 The Influence of Temperature on Magnetic Behavior 815
    20.7 Domains and Hysteresis 816
    20.8 Magnetic Anisotropy 819
    20.9 Soft Magnetic Materials 820
    Materials of Importance?An Iron?Silicon Alloy Used in Transformer Cores 821
    20.10 Hard Magnetic Materials 822
    20.11 Magnetic Storage 825
    20.12 Superconductivity 828
    Summary 831
    Equation Summary 833
    List of Symbols 833
    Important Terms and Concepts 834
    References 834
    Questions and Problems 834
    Design Problems 837
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 837

    21. Optical Properties 838
    Learning Objectives 839
    21.1 Introduction 839
    BASIC CONCEPTS 839
    21.2 Electromagnetic Radiation 839
    21.3 Light Interactions with Solids 841
    21.4 Atomic and Electronic Interactions 842
    OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS 843
    OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF NONMETALS 844
    21.5 Refraction 844
    21.6 Reflection 846
    21.7 Absorption 846
    21.8 Transmission 850
    21.9 Color 850
    21.10 Opacity and Translucency in Insulators 852
    APPLICATIONS OF OPTICAL PHENOMENA 853
    21.11 Luminescence 853
    21.12 Photoconductivity 853
    Materials of Importance?Light-Emitting Diodes 854
    21.13 Lasers 856
    21.14 Optical Fibers in Communications 860
    Summary 862
    Equation Summary 864
    List of Symbols 865
    Important Terms and Concepts 865
    References 865
    Questions and Problems 866
    Design Problem 867
    Fundamentals of Engineering Questions and Problems 867

    22. Economic, Environmental, and Societal Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 868
    Learning Objectives 869
    22.1 Introduction 869
    ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 869
    22.2 Component Design 870
    22.3 Materials 870
    22.4 Manufacturing Techniques 870
    ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIETAL CONSIDERATIONS 871
    22.5 Recycling Issues in Materials Science and Engineering 873
    Materials of Importance?Biodegradable and Biorenewable Polymers/Plastics 876
    Summary 878
    References 879
    Design Questions 879

    Appendix A The International System of Units (SI) 880
    Appendix B Properties of Selected Engineering Materials 882
    B.1 Density 882
    B.2 Modulus of Elasticity 885
    B.3 Poisson?s Ratio 889
    B.4 Strength and Ductility 890
    B.5 Plane Strain Fracture Toughness 895
    B.6 Linear Coefficient of Thermal Expansion 897
    B.7 Thermal Conductivity 900
    B.8 Specific Heat 903
    B.9 Electrical Resistivity 906
    B.10 Metal Alloy Compositions 909
    Appendix C Costs and Relative Costs for Selected Engineering Materials 911
    Appendix D Repeat Unit Structures for Common Polymers 916
    Appendix E Glass Transition and Melting Temperatures for Common Polymeric Materials 920
    Glossary 921
    Answers to Selected Problems 934
    Index 939
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