[PDF] Manfacturing Engineering And Technology - Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R. Schmid - 7th Edition

Manfacturing Engineering and Technology – Serope Kalpakjian, Steven R. Schmid – 7th Edition

Descripción

Al preparar la séptima edición de este libro, nuestro objetivo sigue siendo proporcionar un libro de texto de ingeniería y tecnología de fabricación completo y de última generación, con los objetivos adicionales de motivar y desafiar a los estudiantes en el estudio de esta importante disciplina de la ingeniería. Al igual que en las ediciones anteriores, el libro intenta presentar una visión general amplia, enfatizando una cobertura mayoritariamente cualitativa de la ciencia, la tecnología y la práctica de la manufactura.

Hemos incluido descripciones detalladas de los fundamentos de los procesos de fabricación, las operaciones y la empresa de fabricación. El libro continúa abordando los diversos desafíos y problemas en los procesos y operaciones de fabricación modernos, que van desde temas tradicionales como los procesos de fundición, formación, mecanizado y unión, hasta temas avanzados como la fabricación de dispositivos microelectrónicos y sistemas microelectromecánicos y nanofabricación.

El libro proporciona numerosos ejemplos y casos de estudios, así como una cobertura completa y actualizada de todos los temas relevantes para la fabricación moderna, como base sólida para estudiantes y profesionales.

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  • Preface
    About the Authors
    General Introduction
    I.1 What is Manufacturing?
    I.2 Product Design and Concurrent Engineering
    I.3 Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service
    I.4 Green Design and Manufacturing
    I.5 Selection of Materials
    I.6 Selection of Manufacturing Processes
    I.7 Computer-integrated Manufacturing
    I.8 Quality Assurance and Total Quality Management
    I.9 Lean Production and Agile Manufacturing
    I.10 Manufacturing Costs and Global Competition
    I.11 Trends in Manufacturing

    Part I: Fundamentals of Materials: Behavior and Manufacturing Properties
    1 The Structure of Metals
    1.1 Introduction
    1.2 Types of Atomic Bonds
    1.3 The Crystal Structure of Metals
    1.4 Deformation and Strength of Single Crystals
    1.5 Grains and Grain Boundaries
    1.6 Plastic Deformation of Polycrystalline Metals
    1.7 Recovery, Recrystallization, and Grain Growth
    1.8 Cold, Warm, and Hot Working
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties of Materials
    2.1 Introduction
    2.2 Tension
    2.3 Compression
    2.4 Torsion
    2.5 Bending (Flexure)
    2.6 Hardness
    2.7 Fatigue
    2.8 Creep
    2.9 Impact
    2.10 Failure and Fracture of Materials
    2.11 Residual Stresses
    2.12 Work, Heat, and Temperature
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    3 Physical Properties of Materials
    3.1 Introduction
    3.2 Density
    3.3 Melting Point
    3.4 Specific Heat
    3.5 Thermal Conductivity
    3.6 Thermal Expansion
    3.7 Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Properties
    3.8 Corrosion Resistance
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    4 Metal Alloys: Their Structure and Strengthening by Heat Treatment
    4.1 Introduction
    4.2 Structure of Alloys
    4.3 Phase Diagrams
    4.4 The Iron–carbon System
    4.5 The Iron–iron-carbide Phase Diagram and the Development of Microstructures in Steels
    4.6 Cast Irons
    4.7 Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys
    4.8 Hardenability of Ferrous Alloys
    4.9 Heat Treatment of Nonferrous Alloys and Stainless Steels
    4.10 Case Hardening
    4.11 Annealing
    4.12 Heat-treating Furnaces and Equipment
    4.13 Design Considerations for Heat Treating
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    5 Ferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General Properties, and Applications
    5.1 Introduction
    5.2 Production of Iron and Steel
    5.3 Casting of Ingots
    5.4 Continuous Casting
    5.5 Carbon and Alloy Steels
    5.6 Stainless Steels
    5.7 Tool and Die Steels
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    6 Nonferrous Metals and Alloys: Production, General Properties, and Applications
    6.1 Introduction
    6.2 Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
    6.3 Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys
    6.4 Copper and Copper Alloys
    6.5 Nickel and Nickel Alloys
    6.6 Superalloys
    6.7 Titanium and Titanium Alloys
    6.8 Refractory Metals and Alloys
    6.9 Beryllium
    6.10 Zirconium
    6.11 Low-melting Alloys
    6.12 Precious Metals
    6.13 Shape-memory Alloys (Smart Materials)
    6.14 Amorphous Alloys (Metallic Glasses)
    6.15 Metal Foams
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    7 Polymers: Structure, General Properties, and Applications
    7.1 Introduction
    7.2 The Structure of Polymers
    7.3 Thermoplastics
    7.4 Thermosetting Plastics
    7.5 Additives in Plastics
    7.6 General Properties and Applications of Thermoplastics
    7.7 General Properties and Applications of Thermosetting Plastics
    7.8 Biodegradable Plastics
    7.9 Elastomers (Rubbers)
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    8 Ceramics, Glass, Graphite, Diamond, and Nanomaterials: Structure, General Properties, and Applications
    8.1 Introduction
    8.2 The Structure of Ceramics
    8.3 General Properties and Applications of Ceramics
    8.4 Glasses
    8.5 Glass Ceramics
    8.6 Graphite
    8.7 Diamond
    8.8 Nanomaterials
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    9 Composite Materials: Structure, General Properties, and Applications
    9.1 Introduction
    9.2 The Structure of Reinforced Plastics
    9.3 Properties of Reinforced Plastics
    9.4 Applications of Reinforced Plastics
    9.5 Metal-matrix Composites
    9.6 Ceramic-matrix Composites
    9.7 Other Composites
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects


    Part II: M etal-casting Processes and Equipment
    10 Fundamentals of Metal Casting
    10.1 Introduction
    10.2 Solidification of Metals
    10.3 Fluid Flow
    10.4 Fluidity of Molten Metal
    10.5 Heat Transfer
    10.6 Defects
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    11 Metal-casting Processes and Equipment
    11.1 Introduction
    11.2 Expendable-mold, Permanent-pattern Casting Processes
    11.3 Expendable-mold, Expendable-pattern Casting Processes
    11.4 Permanent-mold Casting Processes
    11.5 Casting Techniques for Single-crystal Components
    11.6 Rapid Solidification
    11.7 Inspection of Castings
    11.8 Melting Practice and Furnaces
    11.9 Foundries and Foundry Automation
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    12 Metal Casting: Design, Materials, and Economics
    12.1 Introduction
    12.2 Design Considerations in Casting
    12.3 Casting Alloys
    12.4 Economics of Casting
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects

    Part III: Forming and Shaping Processes and Equipment
    13 Metal-rolling Processes and Equipment
    13.1 Introduction
    13.2 The Flat-rolling Process
    13.3 Flat-rolling Practice
    13.4 Rolling Mills
    13.5 Various Rolling Processes and Mills
    Summary
    Key Terms B
    ibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    14 Metal-forging Processes and Equipment
    14.1 Introduction
    14.2 Open-die Forging
    14.3 Impression-die and Closed-die Forging
    14.4 Various Forging Operations
    14.5 Forgeability of Metals; Forging Defects
    14.6 Die Design, Die Materials, and Lubrication
    14.7 Die-manufacturing Methods and Die Failure
    14.8 Forging Machines
    14.9 Economics of Forging
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    15 Metal Extrusion and Drawing Processes and Equipment
    15.1 Introduction
    15.2 The Extrusion Process
    15.3 Hot Extrusion
    15.4 Cold Extrusion
    15.5 Extrusion Defects
    15.6 Design Considerations
    15.7 Extrusion Equipment
    15.8 The Drawing Process
    15.9 Drawing Practice
    15.10 Drawing Defects and Residual Stresses
    15.11 Drawing Equipment
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    16 Sheet-metal Forming Processes and Equipment
    16.1 Introduction
    16.2 Shearing
    16.3 Sheet-metal Characteristics and Formability
    16.4 Formability Tests for Sheet Metals
    16.5 Bending Sheets, Plates, and Tubes
    16.6 Miscellaneous Bending and Related Forming Operations
    16.7 Deep Drawing
    16.8 Rubber Forming and Hydroforming
    16.9 Spinning
    16.10 Superplastic Forming
    16.11 Hot Stamping
    16.12 Specialized Forming Processes
    16.13 Manufacturing of Metal Honeycomb Structures
    16.14 Design Considerations in Sheet-metal Forming
    16.15 Equipment for Sheet-metal Forming
    16.16 Economics of Sheet-forming Operations
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    17 Powder Metal Processes and Equipment
    17.1 Introduction
    17.2 Production of Metal Powders
    17.3 Compaction of Metal Powders
    17.4 Sintering
    17.5 Secondary and Finishing Operations
    17.6 Design Considerations
    17.7 Economics of Powder Metallurgy
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    18 Ceramics, Glasses, and Superconductors: Processing and Equipment
    18.1 Introduction
    18.2 Shaping Ceramics
    18.3 Forming and Shaping of Glass
    18.4 Techniques for Strengthening and Annealing Glass
    18.5 Design Considerations for Ceramics and Glasses
    18.6 Processing of Superconductors
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    19 Plastics and Composite Materials: Forming and Shaping
    19.1 Introduction
    19.2 Extrusion
    19.3 Injection Molding
    19.4 Blow Molding
    19.5 Rotational Molding
    19.6 Thermoforming
    19.7 Compression Molding
    19.8 Transfer Molding
    19.9 Casting
    19.10 Foam Molding
    19.11 Cold Forming and Solid-phase Forming
    19.12 Processing Elastomers
    19.13 Processing Polymer-matrix Composites
    19.14 Processing M etal-matrix and Ceramic-matrix Composites
    19.15 Design Considerations
    19.16 Economics of Processing Plastics and Composite Materials
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    20 Rapid-prototyping Processes and Operations
    20.1 Introduction
    20.2 Subtractive Processes
    20.3 Additive Processes
    20.4 Virtual Prototyping
    20.5 Self-replicating Machines
    20.6 Direct Manufacturing and Rapid Tooling
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects

    Part IV: M achining Processes and Machine Tools
    21 Fundamentals of Machining
    21.1 Introduction
    21.2 Mechanics of Cutting
    21.3 Cutting Forces and Power
    21.4 Temperatures in Cutting
    21.5 Tool Life: Wear and Failure
    21.6 Surface Finish and Integrity
    21.7 Machinability
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    22 Cutting-tool Materials and Cutting Fluids
    22.1 Introduction
    22.2 High-speed Steels
    22.3 Cast-cobalt Alloys
    22.4 Carbides
    22.5 Coated Tools
    22.6 Alumina-based Ceramics
    22.7 Cubic Boron Nitride
    22.8 Silicon-nitride-based Ceramics
    22.9 Diamond
    22.10 Whisker-reinforced Materials and Nanomaterials
    22.11 Tool Costs and Reconditioning of Tools
    22.12 Cutting Fluids
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    23 Machining Processes: Turning and Hole Making
    23.1 Introduction
    23.2 The Turning Process
    23.3 Lathes and Lathe Operations
    23.4 Boring and Boring Machines
    23.5 Drilling, Drills, and Drilling Machines
    23.6 Reaming and Reamers
    23.7 Tapping and Taps
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    24 Machining Processes: Milling, Broaching, Sawing, Filing, and Gear Manufacturing
    24.1 Introduction
    24.2 Milling and Milling Machines
    24.3 Planing and Shaping
    24.4 Broaching and Broaching Machines
    24.5 Sawing
    24.6 Filing
    24.7 Gear Manufacturing by Machining
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    Machining Centers, Machine-tool Structures, and Machining Economics
    25.1 Introduction
    25.2 Machining Centers
    25.3 Machine-tool Structures
    25.4 Vibration and Chatter in Machining Operations
    25.5 High-speed Machining
    25.6 Hard Machining
    25.7 Ultraprecision Machining
    25.8 Machining Economics
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    26 Abrasive Machining and Finishing Operations
    26.1 Introduction
    26.2 Abrasives and Bonded Abrasives
    26.3 The Grinding Process
    26.4 Grinding Operations and Machines
    26.5 Design Considerations for Grinding
    26.6 Ultrasonic Machining
    26.7 Finishing Operations
    26.8 Deburring Operations
    26.9 Economics of Abrasive Machining and Finishing Operations
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    27 Advanced Machining Processes and Equipment
    27.1 Introduction
    27.2 Chemical Machining
    27.3 Electrochemical Machining
    27.4 Electrochemical Grinding
    27.5 Electrical-discharge Machining
    27.6 Laser-beam Machining
    27.7 Electron-beam Machining
    27.8 Water-jet Machining
    27.9 Abrasive-jet Machining
    27.10 Hybrid Machining Systems
    27.11 Economics of Advanced Machining Processes
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects

    Part V: M icrom anufacturing and Fabrication of M icroelectronic Devices
    28 Fabrication of Microelectronic Devices
    28.1 Introduction
    28.2 Clean Rooms
    28.3 Semiconductors and Silicon
    28.4 Crystal Growing and Wafer Preparation
    28.5 Film Deposition
    28.6 Oxidation
    28.7 Lithography
    28.8 Etching
    28.9 Diffusion and Ion Implantation
    28.10 Metallization and Testing
    28.11 Wire Bonding and Packaging
    28.12 Yield and Reliability
    28.13 Printed Circuit Boards
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    29 Fabrication of Microelectromechanical Devices and Systems; Nanoscale Manufacturing
    29.1 Introduction
    29.2 Micromachining of MEMS Devices
    29.3 Electroforming-based Processes
    29.4 Solid Free-form Fabrication of Devices
    29.5 Nanoscale Manufacturing
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects

    Part VI: Joining Processes and Equipment
    30 Fusion-welding Processes
    30.1 Introduction
    30.2 Oxyfuel–gas Welding
    30.3 Arc-welding Processes: Nonconsumable Electrode
    30.4 Arc-welding Processes: Consumable Electrode
    30.5 Electrodes for Arc Welding
    30.6 Electron-beam Welding
    30.7 Laser-beam Welding
    30.8 Cutting
    30.9 The Weld Joint, Weld Quality, and Testing
    30.10 Joint Design and Process Selection
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    31 Solid-State Welding Processes
    31.1 Introduction
    31.2 Cold Welding and Roll Bonding
    31.3 Ultrasonic Welding
    31.4 Friction Welding
    31.5 Resistance Welding
    31.6 Explosion Welding
    31.7 Diffusion Bonding
    31.8 Economics of Welding Operations
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    32 Brazing, Soldering, Adhesive-bonding, and Mechanical Fastening Processes
    32.1 Introduction
    32.2 Brazing
    32.3 Soldering
    32.4 Adhesive-bonding
    32.5 Mechanical Fastening
    32.6 Joining Plastics, Ceramics, and Glasses
    32.7 Economics of Joining Operations
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects

    Part VII: Surface Technology
    Surface Roughness and Measurement; Friction, Wear, and Lubrication
    33.1 Introduction
    33.2 Surface Structure and Integrity
    33.3 Surface Texture and Roughness
    33.4 Friction
    33.5 Wear
    33.6 Lubrication
    33.7 Metalworking Fluids and Their Selection
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    34 Surface Treatments, Coatings, and Cleaning
    34.1 Introduction
    34.2 Mechanical Surface Treatments
    34.3 Mechanical Plating and Cladding
    34.4 Case Hardening and Hard Facing
    34.5 Thermal Spraying
    34.6 Vapor Deposition
    34.7 Ion Implantation and Diffusion Coating
    34.8 Laser Treatments
    34.9 Electroplating, Electroless Plating, and Electroforming
    34.10 Conversion Coatings
    34.11 Hot Dipping
    34.12 Porcelain Enameling; Ceramic and Organic Coatings
    34.13 Diamond Coating and Diamond-like Carbon
    34.14 Surface Texturing
    34.15 Painting
    34.16 Cleaning of Surfaces
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    Part VIII: Engineering M etrology
    Instrumentation
    and Q uality
    Assurance
    35 Engineering Metrology and Instrumentation
    35.1 Introduction
    35.2 Measurement Standards
    35.3 Geometric Features of Parts: Analog and Digital Measurements
    35.4 Traditional Measuring Methods and Instruments
    35.5 Modern Measuring Instruments and Machines 1
    35.6 Automated Measurement
    35.7 General Characteristics and Selection of Measuring Instruments
    35.8 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    36 Quality Assurance, Testing, and Inspection
    36.1 Introduction
    36.2 Product Quality
    36.3 Quality Assurance
    36.4 Total Quality Management
    36.5 Taguchi Methods
    36.6 The ISO and QS Standards
    36.7 Statistical Methods of Quality Control
    36.8 Statistical Process Control
    36.9 Reliability of Products and Processes
    36.10 Nondestructive Testing
    36.11 Destructive Testing
    36.12 Automated Inspection
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects

    Part IX: Manufacturing in a Com petitive Environment
    37 Automation of Manufacturing Processes and Operations
    37.1 Introduction
    37.2 Automation
    37.3 Numerical Control
    37.4 Adaptive Control
    37.5 Material Handling and Movement
    37.6 Industrial Robots
    37.7 Sensor Technology
    37.8 Flexible Fixturing
    37.9 Assembly Systems
    37.10 Design Considerations for Fixturing, Assembly, Disassembly, and Servicing
    37.11 Economic Considerations
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Quantitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    38 Computer-aided Manufacturing
    38.1 Introduction
    38.2 Manufacturing Systems
    38.3 Computer-integrated Manufacturing
    38.4 Computer-aided Design and Engineering
    38.5 Computer-aided Manufacturing
    38.6 Computer-aided Process Planning
    38.7 Computer Simulation of Manufacturing Processes and Systems
    38.8 Group Technology
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    39 Computer-integrated Manufacturing Systems
    39.1 Introduction
    39.2 Cellular Manufacturing
    39.3 Flexible Manufacturing Systems
    39.4 Holonic Manufacturing
    39.5 Just-in-time Production
    39.6 Lean Manufacturing
    39.7 Communications Networks in Manufacturing
    39.8 Artificial Intelligence
    39.9 Economic Considerations
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    40 Product Design and Manufacturing in a Competitive Environment
    40.1 Introduction
    40.2 Product Design
    40.3 Product Quality
    40.4 Life-cycle Assessment and Sustainable Manufacturing
    40.5 Energy Consumption in Manufacturing
    40.6 Material Selection for Products
    40.7 Material Substitution
    40.8 Manufacturing Process Capabilities
    40.9 Process Selection
    40.10 Manufacturing Costs and Cost Reduction
    Summary
    Key Terms
    Bibliography
    Review Questions
    Qualitative Problems
    Synthesis, Design, and Projects
    Index
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