Refrigeration Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps – A. R. Trott, T Welch, G. H. Hundy – 5th Edition

Descripción

Air Conditioning and Heat Pumps, en su quinta edición, proporciona una introducción completa a los principios y la práctica de la refrigeración. Clara y completa, es adecuada tanto para ingenieros de HVAC en formación como profesionales, con un enfoque directo que también ayuda a los lectores sin experiencia a obtener una introducción completa a los fundamentos de la tecnología. Con su estilo conciso y amplio alcance, el libro cubre la mayoría de los equipos y aplicaciones que encontrarán los profesionales. La simplicidad de las descripciones ayuda a los usuarios a comprender, especificar, poner en marcha, usar y mantener estos sistemas.

Es un texto imprescindible para cualquier persona que necesite información completa y fundamental sobre refrigeración y aire acondicionado, pero sin la de un libro de texto. Incluye tecnicismos detallados o información específica del producto. El material nuevo de esta edición incluye los últimos desarrollos en refrigerantes y lubricantes, junto con información actualizada sobre , de calor, enfriadores de líquidos, válvulas de expansión electrónicas, controles y almacenamiento en frío. Además, también se incluyen la eficiencia, el impacto ambiental, los sistemas divididos, la refrigeración minorista (sistemas de supermercados y cámaras frigoríficas), los sistemas industriales, los ventiladores, la infiltración de aire y el ruido.

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  • Chapter 1: Fundamentals
    1.1. Introduction
    1.2. Temperature, work and heat
    1.3. Heat and enthalpy
    1.4. Boiling point
    1.5. General gas laws
    1.6. Dalton’s law
    1.7. The pressure – enthalpy chart
    1.8. Heat transfer
    1.9. Transient heat flow
    1.10. Two-phase heat transfer

    Chapter 2: The Refrigeration Cycle
    2.1. Ideal cycle
    2.2. Simple vapour compression cycle
    2.3. Practical considerations and COP
    2.4. Multistage cycles
    2.5. Transcritical carbon dioxide cycles
    2.6. Heat powered cycles
    2.7. Other processes

    Chapter 3: Refrigerants
    3.1. Introduction
    3.2. Ideal properties for a refrigerant
    3.3. Ozone depletion potential
    3.4. Global warming potential
    3.5. Nomenclature
    3.6. Refrigerant blends and glide
    3.7. Legislation
    3.8. Containment and training
    3.9. Refrigerant applications
    3.10. Refrigerants and efficiency
    3.11. Health and safety
    3.12. Innovation

    Chapter 4: Compressors
    4.1. Introduction
    4.2. The piston compression process
    4.3. Multi-cylinder compressors
    4.4. Valves
    4.5. Capacity reduction
    4.6. Enclosed motors
    4.7. Open compressors
    4.8. Cooling and protection
    4.9. Strainers, lubrication and crankcase heaters
    4.10. Compressor efficiency
    4.11. Screw compressors
    4.12. Scroll compressors
    4.13. Sliding and rotary vane compressors
    4.14. Dynamic compressors
    4.15. Refrigerant suitability

    Chapter 5: Oil in Refrigerant Circuits
    5.1. Introduction
    5.2. Requirements and characteristics
    5.3. Moisture and AIR contamination
    5.4. Oil separators
    5.5. Oil circulation
    5.6. Oil properties summary

    Chapter 6: Condensers and Cooling Towers
    6.1. Introduction
    6.2. Heat to be removed
    6.3. Air-cooled condensers
    6.4. Water-cooled condensers
    6.5. Cooling towers and dry coolers
    6.6. Evaporative condensers
    6.7. Water treatment
    6.8. Condenser maintenance
    6.9. Legionella
    6.10. Design considerations
    6.11. Low ambient operation
    6.12. Receivers
    6.13. Heat-pump condensers

    Chapter 7: Evaporators
    7.1. Introduction
    7.2. Air cooling evaporators
    7.3. Liquid cooling evaporators
    7.4. Plate evaporators for freezing
    7.5. Defrosting
    7.6. Condensate pumps

    Chapter 8: Expansion Valves
    8.1. Introduction
    8.2. Thermostatic expansion valves
    8.3. External equaliser
    8.4. Electronic expansion valves
    8.5. Capillary tubes and restrictors
    8.6. Low-pressure float valves and switches
    8.7. High-pressure float valves
    8.8. Other level controls

    Chapter 9: Controls and Other Circuit Components
    9.1. Introduction
    9.2. Main control functions
    9.3. Safety and protection devices
    9.4. Oil-pressure switches
    9.5. Pressure and temperature indicators
    9.6. Solenoid valves
    9.7. Evaporator pressure regulation valves
    9.8. Hot gas by-pass valves
    9.9. Shut-off valves
    9.10. Filter-driers
    9.11. Sight glasses
    9.12. Suction accumulators
    9.13. Suction-to-liquid heat exchangers
    9.14. Condenser pressure regulators
    9.15. Strainers
    9.16. Charging connection
    9.17. Check valves
    9.18. Liquid refrigerant pumps

    Chapter 10: Component Selection and Balancing
    10.1. Introduction
    10.2. Criteria and options
    10.3. Evaporating temperature
    10.4. Evaporator
    10.5. Compressor
    10.6. Condenser
    10.7. Expansion valve
    10.8. Sizing pipe and other components
    10.9. Re-check components

    Chapter 11: Installation and Construction
    11.1. Introduction
    11.2. Materials
    11.3. Pressure safety and containment
    11.4. Pipe-joining methods
    11.5. Piping for oil return
    11.6. Siting, access and pipe supports
    11.7. Instruments
    11.8. Rising liquid lines
    11.9. Vibration
    11.10. Cleanliness of piping
    11.11. Evacuation
    11.12. Charging with refrigerant
    11.13. Insulation
    11.14. Water circuits
    11.15. Non-condensable gases

    Chapter 12: Distributed Cooling and Heating
    12.1. Introduction
    12.2. Refrigerant circulation
    12.3. Chilled water
    12.4. Baudelot coolers and ice bank coils
    12.5. Ice manufacture
    12.6. Secondary coolants
    12.7. Phase change materials as secondary coolants
    12.8. Thermal storage

    Chapter 13: Packaged Units
    13.1. Introduction
    13.2. Condensing units
    13.3. Compressor packs
    13.4. Chillers and air cooling packages
    13.5. Split packages
    13.6. Testing of packaged units
    13.7. Other packages

    Chapter 14: Food Refrigeration and Freezing
    14.1. Introduction
    14.2. Pre-storage treatment
    14.3. Pre-cooling
    14.4. Freezing
    14.5. Quick freezing
    14.6. Contact freezing
    14.7. Freeze drying
    14.8. Post-storage operations

    Chapter 15: Cold Storage and Refrigeration Load Estimation
    15.1. Introduction
    15.2. Cold storage loads
    15.3. Product cooling
    15.4. Conducted and radiated heat
    15.5. Convected heat
    15.6. Internal heat sources
    15.7. Heat of respiration
    15.8. Packing and handling
    15.9. Frost avoidance
    15.10. Insulation and vapour barriers
    15.11. Sectional cold rooms
    15.12. Cold store construction
    15.13. Floors
    15.14. Frost heave
    15.15. Fire risk
    15.16. Door and safety exits
    15.17. Interior finish and fittings
    15.18. Evaporators
    15.19. Automated cold stores
    15.20. Security of operation

    Chapter 16: Food Refrigeration – Product by Product
    16.1. Introduction
    16.2. Meat industry applications
    16.3. Boned, boxed and processed meats
    16.4. Pork and bacon
    16.5. Poultry
    16.6. Fish
    16.7. Milk and milk products
    16.8. Ice cream
    16.9. Beer and brewing
    16.10. Wines and spirits
    16.11. Soft drinks
    16.12. Fruits
    16.13. Vegetables
    16.14. Bakery products
    16.15. Ready meals
    16.16. Chocolate

    Chapter 17: The Cold Chain – Transport, Storage, Retail
    17.1. Introduction
    17.2. Air transport
    17.3. Sea and intermodal transport
    17.4. Road and rail transport
    17.5. Logistics
    17.6. Refrigerated display
    17.7. Retail refrigeration
    17.8. Transition to low gwp refrigerants

    Chapter 18: Industrial Applications
    18.1. Introduction
    18.2. R717 and R744 industrial systems
    18.3. Chilled liquids for cooling
    18.4. Solvent recovery
    18.5. Low-temperature liquid storage and transport
    18.6. De-waxing of oils
    18.7. Ice and snow sports
    18.8. Cooling concrete
    18.9. Ground freezing
    18.10. Low-temperature testing
    18.11. Chemical industry

    Chapter 19: Air and Water Vapour Mixtures
    19.1. Introduction
    19.2. Calculation of properties
    19.3. Moisture content, percentage saturation, and relative humidity
    19.4. Dew point
    19.5. Wet bulb temperature
    19.6. The psychrometric chart
    19.7. Effects on human comfort
    19.8. Climatic conditions
    19.9. Other comfort factors
    19.10. Air quality

    Chapter 20: Air Treatment Fundamentals
    20.1. Introduction
    20.2. Heating
    20.3. Mixing of airstreams
    20.4. Sensible cooling
    20.5. Water spray (adiabatic saturation)
    20.6. Steam injection
    20.7. Air washer with chilled water
    20.8. Cooling and dehumidifying coil
    20.9. Sensible–latent ratio
    20.10. Multi-step processes
    20.11. Process analysis

    Chapter 21: Practical Air Treatment
    21.1. Introduction
    21.2. Heating
    21.3. Cooling
    21.4. Dehumidification
    21.5. Numerical Examples

    Chapter 22: Air Conditioning Load Estimation
    22.1. Introduction
    22.2. Components of load
    22.3. Conduction heat gains
    22.4. Solar heat
    22.5. Fresh air
    22.6. Internal heat sources
    22.7. Assessment of total load estimates

    Chapter 23: Air Movement
    23.1. Introduction
    23.2. Static and total pressure
    23.3. Measuring devices
    23.4. Fans
    23.5. Fan laws and fan control
    23.6. Flow of air in ducts
    23.7. Flow of air under kinetic energy
    23.8. Flow of air in a room
    23.9. Grilles
    23.10. Return air
    23.11. Textile ducting
    23.12. Air filtration
    23.13. Cleanliness and cleaning of ducting

    Chapter 24: Air Conditioning Methods and Applications
    24.1. Introduction
    24.2. Air handling units
    24.3. Fan coil units
    24.4. Integral units
    24.5. Underfloor systems
    24.6. Static cooling devices
    24.7. Packaged units and split systems
    24.8. Transport air conditioning
    24.9. Data centre cooling applications
    24.10. Dehumification applications

    Chapter 25: Heat Pumps and Integrated Systems
    25.1. Introduction
    25.2. Heat recovery and reversible air conditioners
    25.3. Ground source heat pumps
    25.4. Air source heat pumps
    25.5. Heat delivery in residential and commercial heat pumps
    25.6. VRV/VRF systems
    25.7. Two-pipe systems
    25.8. Hybrid heat pumps
    25.9. Engine-driven and heat powered heat pumps
    25.10. Heat recovery from refrigeration installations

    Chapter 26: Control Systems
    26.1. Introduction
    26.2. The control loop
    26.3. Detectors and sensors
    26.4. Controllers
    26.5. Controlled devices
    26.6. Controls communications
    26.7. Control system planning
    26.8. Commissioning of control systems
    26.9. The internet of things

    Chapter 27: Commissioning and Maintenance
    27.1. Introduction
    27.2. Specification
    27.3. Commissioning
    27.4. Performance measurements
    27.5. Planned maintenance
    27.6. Repairs and modifications
    27.7. Faultfinding
    27.8. Running log
    27.9. Leak testing
    27.10. Mandatory inspections
    27.11. Training and competence

    Chapter 28: Efficiency, Running Cost and Carbon Footprint
    28.1. Introduction
    28.2. Energy efficiency, COP and SEI
    28.3. Energy efficiency, practical considerations
    28.4. Running cost
    28.5. Life cycle cost analysis
    28.6. Heat pump/boiler comparison
    28.7. Efficiency standards, certification and labelling
    28.8. Commitment to energy savings

    Chapter 29: Noise and Vibration
    29.1. Introduction
    29.2. Noise sources
    29.3. Noise transmission and attenuation
    29.4. Noise perception
    29.5. Some simple rules
    29.6. Published information
    29.7. Air system noise
    29.8. Noise prediction software
    29.9. Vibration

    Chapter 30: Renewable Energy Innovations
    30.1. Introduction
    30.2. Renewable energy storage and availability
    30.3. Efficiency
    30.4. Examples
    Appendix: Notes on Units of Measurement
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